文章來源:未知 文章作者:meng 發布時間:2010-03-11 01:25 字體: [ ]  進入論壇

A study on the past extinction1 of large mammals in India by the Wildlife Conservation Society, Duke University, and other groups has found that country's protected area system and human cultural tolerance2 for some species are key to conserving3(保存,保持) the subcontinent(次大陸)'s tigers, elephants, and other large mammals. According to the study, the long-term survival of many large species in the midst of rapid economic growth will require improving existing protected areas and establishing new protected areas and corridors(廊道,走廊).

The paper—recently published in the Proceedings4 of the Royal Society—is authored by: Krithi K. Karanth of Duke & Columbia University; James D. Nichols and James E. Hines of the USGS Patuxent Research Center; K. Ullas Karanth of the Wildlife Conservation Society; and Norman L. Christensen of Duke University.

"This study provides us with a roadmap for next steps for conservation in India," said Colin Poole, executive director of the Wildlife Conservation Society's Asia Program. "As India develops into a world economic power, it is critical that conservation planning is part of that expansion."

"India's rich diversity(多樣性,差異) of wildlife is one of the country's great assets(財產,有利條件)," said Krithi K. Karanth, the study's lead author. "Our work highlights the perilous5(危險的,冒險的) state of wildlife in India and conservation priorities must help conserve6 the nation's natural heritage."

The researchers created models to estimate extinction probability for 25 large mammal species, determining current species distributions along with more than 30,000 historical records from natural history, taxidermy(標本錄制術) and museum records dating back 200 years. The models were used to gauge7(估計,測量) how factors such as protected areas, forest cover, elevation8, and human demographics(人口統計資料), and cultural attitudes impact extinction predictions.

The results of the analysis found that all 25 species would experience some level of local extinction due to a variety of factors such as habitat loss and human population growth and development. The study results confirmed that species do benefit from protected areas, especially large carnivores(食肉動物) such as tigers and other forest-dwelling(住處,寓所) animals such as Sambar(水鹿,黒鹿) deer. The species with the highest probable rates of extinction were large-bodied animals such as the wild buffalo9 (66 percent), habitat specialists such as the goat-like Nilgiri tahr (71 percent) and the swamp(沼澤,濕地) deer (90 percent), and rare species had higher probabilities of extinction such as the Asiatic lions of Gir Forest (96 percent).

Factors such as human densities10 did increase the probability of extinction for many species with the exception of adaptable11 animals such as wild pigs, jackals(豺狼), and blackbuck(印度羚).

The authors point out that many species, including ones that exist outside of protected areas (mouse deer, four-horned antelope羚羊, sloth13 bear印度懶熊, wolf and others) and species that now occupy a tiny remnant(剩余) of former ranges (gaur印度野牛, elephant, rhino犀牛, Asiatic lion, tigers, etc.) will require new protected areas to ensure their persistence15.

"Our results highlight the need for an expansion of conservation planning to complement16 land use decisions and development," added Karanth.


1 extinction sPwzP     
  • The plant is now in danger of extinction.這種植物現在有絕種的危險。
  • The island's way of life is doomed to extinction.這個島上的生活方式注定要消失。
2 tolerance Lnswz     
  • Tolerance is one of his strengths.寬容是他的一個優點。
  • Human beings have limited tolerance of noise.人類對噪音的忍耐力有限。
3 conserving b57084daff81d3ab06526e08a5a6ecc3     
v.保護,保藏,保存( conserve的現在分詞 )
  • Contour planning with or without terracing is effective in conserving both soil and moisture. 順等高線栽植,無論做或不做梯田對于保持水土都能有效。 來自辭典例句
  • Economic savings, consistent with a conserving society and the public philosophy. 經濟節約,符合創建節約型社會的公共理念。 來自互聯網
4 proceedings Wk2zvX     
  • He was released on bail pending committal proceedings. 他交保獲釋正在候審。
  • to initiate legal proceedings against sb 對某人提起訴訟
5 perilous E3xz6     
  • The journey through the jungle was perilous.穿過叢林的旅行充滿了危險。
  • We have been carried in safety through a perilous crisis.歷經一連串危機,我們如今已安然無恙。
6 conserve vYRyP     
  • He writes on both sides of the sheet to conserve paper.他在紙張的兩面都寫字以節省用紙。
  • Conserve your energy,you'll need it!保存你的精力,你會用得著的!
7 gauge 2gMxz     
  • Can you gauge what her reaction is likely to be?你能揣測她的反應可能是什么嗎?
  • It's difficult to gauge one's character.要判斷一個人的品格是很困難的。
8 elevation bqsxH     
  • The house is at an elevation of 2,000 metres.那幢房子位于海拔兩千米的高處。
  • His elevation to the position of General Manager was announced yesterday.昨天宣布他晉升總經理職位。
9 buffalo 1Sby4     
  • Asian buffalo isn't as wild as that of America's. 亞洲水牛比美洲水牛溫順些。
  • The boots are made of buffalo hide. 這雙靴子是由水牛皮制成的。
10 densities eca5c1ea104bef3058e858fe084fb6d0     
密集( density的名詞復數 ); 稠密; 密度(固體、液體或氣體單位體積的質量); 密度(磁盤存貯數據的可用空間)
  • The range of densities of interest is about 3.5. 有用的密度范圍為3.5左右。
  • Densities presumably can be probed by radar. 利用雷達也許還能探測出氣體的密度。
11 adaptable vJDyI     
  • He is an adaptable man and will soon learn the new work.他是個適應性很強的人,很快就將學會這種工作。
  • The soil is adaptable to the growth of peanuts.這土壤適宜于花生的生長。
12 antelope fwKzN     
  • Choosing the antelope shows that China wants a Green Olympics.選擇藏羚羊表示中國需要綠色奧運。
  • The tiger was dragging the antelope across the field.老虎拖著羚羊穿過原野。
13 sloth 4ELzP     
  • Absence of competition makes for sloth.沒有競爭會導致懶惰。
  • The sloth spends most of its time hanging upside down from the branches.大部分時間里樹懶都是倒掛在樹枝上。
14 rhino xjmztD     
n.犀牛,錢, 現金
  • The rhino charged headlong towards us.犀牛急速地向我們沖來。
  • They have driven the rhino to the edge of extinction.他們已經令犀牛瀕臨滅絕。
15 persistence hSLzh     
  • The persistence of a cough in his daughter puzzled him.他女兒持續的咳嗽把他難住了。
  • He achieved success through dogged persistence.他靠著堅持不懈取得了成功。
16 complement ZbTyZ     
  • The two suggestions complement each other.這兩條建議相互補充。
  • They oppose each other also complement each other.它們相輔相成。