英語演講:改變一下,仰望星空
文章來源:未知 文章作者:enread 發布時間:2020-05-11 07:03 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
(單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
The sky is inherently democratic.
夜空,是人類與生俱來的共享資源。
It's accessible, in principle, anyway, by anyone, everywhere, just simply by the act of looking up.
原則上來說,任何人、在任何地方,都可以欣賞夜空的美,你只需輕輕抬頭仰望。
But like so many beautiful things around us, it's slipping away from us,
然而,如同我們身邊很多其它美麗的事物一樣,夜空正在逐漸消逝,
and we haven't even noticed, because we're honestly not really looking.
而我們卻未曾察覺,因為,我們根本看都沒看一眼。
So what do we look at instead? Well, we look at our phones, we look at our computers, we look at screens of all kinds.
那我們看的究竟是什么呢?我們在看手機、玩電腦,我們注視著各種各樣的電子屏幕。
And honestly, we rarely even take the trouble to look up enough to see each other,
說實在的,我們甚至很少費心去抬頭注視彼此,
let alone taking that next step to looking up at the actual sky.
更不要說走出房門、抬頭仰望真正的天空了。
Now, there's a tendency to think that the loss of our dark night skies is the inevitable1 outcome of progress, change, technology.
越來越多的人認為,夜空的消逝是科技進步、社會發展的必然結果。
And you know, that's just simply not true. Later on, I'll tell you why.
但這并不是真正的原因。接下來,我將告訴你為什么。
But first, I want to tell you about my experience of the dark night sky.
首先,我想給你們講講我自己有關夜空的經歷。
I never saw a truly dark night sky until I was 15. I was here, in Arizona.
我直到十五歲時,才見過真正的夜空。當時,我就在亞利桑那州。
I was on a road trip; I pulled over somewhere. I have no idea where I was, except I know what state.
那是一次旅途,我們在一個地方靠邊停了車。當時除了州名以外,我對身在何處一無所知。
And I looked up, and the sky was just filled with an impossible number of stars.
就那么不經意地抬頭一望,我看到了布滿繁星的夜空!
You see, I'm from New York City, and in New York, you can see the moon, you can see a couple of stars.
想想看,我來自紐約,在那個城市,你只能看到月亮和幾顆“零星”。
More often than not, they turn out to be airplanes when they land.
而且通常當“零星”降落時,你才發現,它們其實是飛機。
But there's really not much else.
除此之外,也沒什么其它東西了。
As a result, most of my colleagues who are astronomers2 spent at least part of their youth looking up at the sky in their backyard.
我的大多數天文學家同事們,至少都有過一段夜晚在自家后院數星星的童年時光。
I never really had that experience, and, as a result, I'm really disappointing on camping trips.
而我卻從未有過那種經歷,所以在露營旅途中,我的表現令人大失所望。
I don't really know many constellations3.
關于星座方面的知識極其有限。
The ones I do know, you probably know them, too.
而我所知道的為數不多的幾個星座,相信在座的各位也都耳熟能詳。
But I'll never forget that experience of the first time I saw the dark night sky.
但我永遠不會忘記平生第一次看到夜空的經歷。
And I was just flabbergasted at how many stars there were. And I felt tiny.
那漫天的繁星深深震撼了我,讓我感到自己無比渺小。
Then I also felt like, "Where's this been hiding this whole time? Who's been hiding this sky from me?"
接下來,我就有了這樣的疑惑:這些奇景一直以來被藏在了哪里?是誰藏匿了這樣的天空?
Of course, the answer is obvious if you think about it or if you look at the picture on the left,
不過仔細一想,答案其實顯而易見,或者看一下左邊的照片就明白了,
where you're seeing the same neighborhood taken during a blackout versus4 on an ordinary night.
這是同一街區停電時拍攝的夜空,右邊是普通夜晚拍攝的夜空照片。
You can't see the stars if you drown them out with light.
當星星被燈光淹沒時,你自然就看不到它們。
Take a look at our planet. This is our planet from space.
現在請審視一下我們的地球,這是從太空拍攝的地球。
Unlike stars, which are hot and glow invisible light so we can see them,
恒星發出熱量和不可見光,所以我們能看到它們,
our planet is, astronomically5 speaking, pretty cold. So it doesn't really glow.
而地球與恒星不同,從天文學上講,地球很冷,所以其自身并不發光。
When you see the planet looking like a blue-green marble the way it does in this picture,
當你看到圖中展現的這顆如藍綠色大理石般的地球時,
you're seeing it because the sunlight is reflecting off of it,
你能看見它是因為它反射了太陽光的緣故。
and that's why you can see the oceans, the clouds, the land.
這也是為什么你能看到海洋、云朵和陸地。
So if the sun wasn't shining on it, we wouldn't be able to see the earth, right? Or would we?
也就是說,如果沒有太陽的照射,我們就看不到地球了,對嗎?或者,我們依然能看到它?
This is our earth at night, and it is one of the most striking examples of how we have affected6 our planet on a global scale.
這是夜晚的地球,這是人類在全球范圍內對地球造成顯著影響的例子之一。
You can see light spidering out across the globe everywhere.
你可以看到光亮散播到了全球的各個角落,
Now, of course, there are broad expanses of ocean that are still dark,
當然,現在廣闊的海洋依舊處于黑暗中,
and in many underdeveloped areas there's still darkness.
很多不發達的地區看起來也是漆黑一片。
But you'll notice that this is a pretty global effect.
但你會發現這其實已經成為了全球現象。
We tend to think, when we think of places being lit up, of very extreme examples -- Times Square, the Vegas Strip.
當提到燈火通明的地方時,我們總會想起那些最極端的例子,比如時代廣場、拉斯維加斯大道。
But really what that picture shows you is that it's not just these extreme examples, it's anywhere that uses outdoor lighting7.
但那張整個地球的照明情況圖片顯示的不僅僅是這幾個極端個例,而是任何使用戶外照明的地方。
This tends to be a really dramatic effect on the ground.
這往往給地球表面帶來真正巨大的影響。
To understand why, all you really have to do is think about the shape of a lightbulb.
想知道為什么,你只需想想燈泡的形狀。
The lightbulb, for all practical purposes, is more or less round.
為了實用的目的,燈泡基本上都是圓的。
This is great for its original intended purpose of lighting up the indoors.
這正符合它最初的目的,室內照明。
You turn it on, light goes everywhere. An individual light bulb can light up your whole room, more or less.
你打開燈,燈光照射到房間的每個角落。一個燈泡就能照亮整個房間,只是明暗程度的差異。
Now, that's great if you're lighting the indoors, but in its application in outdoor lighting,
如果你想照亮室內,這確實非常有效;但當我們用于室外照明時,
that traditional shape of the light bulb, the sort of globe that spreads light everywhere, is actually very inefficient8.
傳統的燈泡形狀,即那種向四周傳播光線的球形燈泡,其實是十分低效的。
When you're outdoors, mostly what you care about is lighting the ground beneath you and your immediate9 surroundings.
當你身處室外時,你最關心的是照亮你腳下的地面和周圍的環境。
All of that light that gets scattered10 outwards11 and upwards12 doesn't actually help you light the area around you.
所有那些分散向外或向上的光,都并不能幫你有效地照亮你周圍的區域。
What it does is scatters13 up into the sky and becomes what we call "light pollution."
它只是將光線散射到天空,造成我們所說的“光污染”。
Even if you don't care anything about stargazing, this should worry you,
即使你不在意星象觀測,你也應該關心光污染,
because it means that 60-70% of the energy we use to light the outdoors is wasted by blotting14 out the stars.
因為,它意味著我們用于室外照明的60-70%的能量被浪費在屏蔽夜晚的星光了。
Now, like I said, I'm a big fan of technology.
 
正如我所說的,我是個大科技迷。
Obviously, I use technology every day; I'm a scientist.
作為一個科學家,顯然每天我都使用高科技。
And there's this tendency to say that it's progress that -- you know, I'm not suggesting we're going to all go live by candlelight.
大家傾向于認為這是進步--我并非建議大家在燭光下生活。
Indeed, technology is allowing us to access the sky in ways that are impossible otherwise.
確實,科技使我們能夠接近天空。
One of the greatest examples of this is, of course, the Hubble Space Telescope.
用一種只有科技能夠做到的方式,當然,最偉大的例子就是哈勃太空望遠鏡。
The Hubble went up into space, it returns pictures daily,
哈勃望遠鏡被發射進入太空,每天都傳回大量照片,
and it allows us to see things that we are incapable15 of seeing with our naked eye,
讓我們看到太空的事物,這些都是我們肉眼所看不到的,
in ways that we've never been able to do before in all of human history.
在人類歷史的任何階段,我們都從沒這么做過。
Other examples of this would be planetarium16 shows.
其它類似的例子當然還有天體展示。
In the past couple of years, planetarium shows have become more high-tech17 with these great visualizations,
在過去的幾年里,借助這些超棒的可視化信息,天體展示變得越來越高科技化,
and even though this isn't access directly to the sky, it's at least access to our knowledge about the sky.
即使這并不是直接親身接觸天空,但至少讓我們獲得了關于天空的知識。
And indeed, we can experience the sky in a planetarium in a way that is impossible for us to do just sitting out and looking in the dark.
的確,我們可以在天文館體驗那種坐在室外、望向漆黑的夜空所體驗不到的感覺。
All of you have heard of the Hubble Space Telescope and of planetariums18.
你們大概都聽說過哈勃太空望遠鏡和天文館。
But there are also ways for technology to enable participation19 in people's experience of the sky that you may not be familiar with.
但是也有一些技術可以讓人們參與到關于天空的、你可能不熟悉的體驗中。
These are called "citizen science projects."
這就是所謂的“平民科學項目”。
Citizen science is when large research projects put their data online, teach ordinary people, like you, to go and interact with that data
平民科學是一個大的項目,他們把數據放到互聯網上,教像在座各位這樣的普通人去與數據進行交互,
and actually contribute to the research by making interesting or necessary characterizations about it.
通過給數據添加有趣或必要的特征,進而對研究做出貢獻。
One such example of this is what I'm showing here, called "Galaxy20 Zoo."
類似的例子就是我現在展示的“銀河動物園”項目。
Galaxy Zoo is a project where people get a 20-minute -- even less than that, actually
銀河動物園項目是這樣的:人們經過20分鐘的指導--實際上少于20分鐘,
tutorial on how to interact with these images of galaxies21.
學習關于如何與這些星系的圖像進行交互。
They learn to annotate22 the images, and within a couple of minutes, they're up and running,
他們學習為圖像做注釋,在幾分鐘內,他們就能著手開始工作,
and they're making really useful categorizations and classifications of these galaxies.
而且真正能夠對這些星系進行有用的歸類和劃分。
Now, it's easy to understand why Galaxy Zoo would be an easy sell for people to be involved with:
很容易就能理解為何“銀河動物園”很容易被參與其中的人所接受:
it involves pretty pictures; galaxies are, generally speaking, pretty attractive.
它包含了漂亮的圖片;通常來說,星系的確很吸引人。
However, there are many other flavors of citizen science projects that people have delved23 into that have varying levels of abstraction,
然而,還有很多其他類型的平民科學項目,人們探究過的這些項目抽象程度各不相同,
that you wouldn't necessarily think people would jump at.
你會覺得人們不太會立刻參與這些項目。
One such example of this is the citizen science project associated with the mission that I'm part of, called the Kepler Mission.
一個類似的例子就是與我參加的任務相關的一個平民科學項目,叫做“開普勒任務”。
Kepler is a space telescope and it looks for planets around other stars by measuring the light from those stars very precisely24.
開普勒是一個太空望遠鏡,它通過精確測量恒星的光線(變化)來尋找恒星周圍的行星。
And we're looking for the dimmings caused by stars blocking off some of that light.
我們在尋找恒星因為光線被(圍繞其運轉的行星)阻擋而發生的微暗現象。
We have an associated citizen science project called "Planet Hunters."
我們有一個與此相關的“行星獵手”平民科學項目。
Planet Hunters gives you, like Galaxy Zoo, a short tutorial, and within a couple of minutes, you're up and running;
類似于銀河動物園,這個項目也會提供給你一個短教程,幾分鐘之后,你就可以開始工作;
you're looking at data from the Kepler Mission and looking for planets.
你需要觀察來自開普勒任務的數據,并尋找行星。
The idea behind this is an easy sell, right?
背后的想法很容易被接受,對嗎?
But the actual process of planet-hunting involves a lot of looking at graphs,
但探索行星的實際過程包含對大量圖表進行觀察分析,
like the one I'm showing you here, and annotating25 them.
就像這里我向你們展示的一樣,需要去分析和注釋它們。
I do this all day and that doesn't even sound that interesting to me.
我整天都做這些工作,所以已經不覺得那么有趣了。
However, not only are people interested in doing this,
然而,人們不僅對此很感興趣,
but the citizen scientists that work with Planet Hunters have actually found planets in the data that would have gone undiscovered otherwise.
而且參與“行星獵手”項目的平民科學家們在數據中真的發現了行星,多虧了他們,才不至于錯失發現這些行星的機會。
This is an author list from the paper that they published of the planet they discovered.
這是他們發表的關于所發現行星論文中的作者列表。
You'll see that all the people who contributed are listed below,
你會看到,所有對此做出貢獻的人們都在以下名單中列出,
and it's sort of an odd amalgam26 of people's real names and their log-in names.
名單有點像人們真實姓名和他們登錄名的奇怪組合。
You'll notice if you look carefully, this is the first academic acknowledgment of the importance of Irish coffee in the discovery process.
如果仔細觀察,你會發現這是學術圈第一次認可愛爾蘭咖啡在發現行星過程中的重要性。
I don't want to give you the idea that these are some out-of-work scientists or just a bunch of nerds that are really into this.
我不想給你這樣的錯覺,以為這些只是一些失業的科學家或一些書呆子才會癡迷的項目。
There are 60,000 people who participate in these projects, and most of them don't have technical backgrounds.
其實,一共有6萬人參與了這些項目,其中大部分人都沒有技術背景。
So clearly, what this is feeding into is people's curiosity and their willingness to be part of the scientific discovery process.
顯然,人們參與其中是因為好奇心驅使,還有他們參與科學發現過程的意愿。
People want to do this. But all of this technology and all these digitally mediated27 ways of experiencing the sky
人們想去做這樣的事情。但是所有這些技術,以及所有這些體驗天空的數碼媒介方式,
still have something of a feel to me like looking at an animal in a zoo.
仍帶給我一種像在動物園看動物的感覺。
It's a valid28 way of experiencing that thing -- indeed, the lion in the cage is still real, the Hubble images are indeed real,
這是體驗天空的有效方式,確實,籠里的獅子依舊是真實的,哈勃圖片也確實是真實的,
and you can get closer to a lion in a zoo than you can in the wild. However, it's missing something.
而且,你在動物園里比在野外更接近獅子。然而,這里缺少了一些東西。
It's missing that savage29 beauty of experiencing that very thing in the wild for yourself, unmediated by a screen.
缺少你在野外親身體驗到的那種野性之美,未曾經過熒屏這層媒介。
The experience of looking up and knowing that the sky you're looking at surrounds every known living thing in the universe is very profound.
 
仰望天空,并認識到你正觀看的天空包圍著宇宙中所有的已知生物,這種感受意義深遠。
Think about that for a moment. We are the only planet we know of that has life on it.
試想一下,我們是唯一已知的存在生命的星球。
The sky that you see is shared by every other living thing that we know of in existence.
你所看到的天空,是與已知世間萬物共享的,
One of the things that I really like about my work is that
我真正喜歡自己職業的一點是,
it allows me to step back from my every day and to experience the larger context,
它讓我拋開日常的生活,去體驗更豐富的內涵,
this feeling that just as we go out and try to find planets in the universe that might be like ours,
這種感覺就好像我們遨游宇宙去尋找新的行星,可能和地球一樣的星球,
it always reminds me of how precious what we have here is.
這總是提醒我現在的生活有多么珍貴。
Our night sky is like a natural resource, it's as though it's a park that you can visit without ever having to travel there.
我們的夜空就像自然資源,就像一個無須經歷旅游勞頓就可以參觀的公園。
But like any natural resource,
但是,就像其他的自然資源一樣,
if we don't protect it, if we don't preserve it and treasure it, it will slip away from us and be gone.
如果我們不去保護它、保存它和珍惜它,它將會從我們身邊消失。
So if you're interested in this, and this is something you want to learn more about,
因此,如果你們對此感興趣,如果這也是你想多了解的東西,
I encourage you in particular to visit darksky.org
我特別鼓勵你們去訪問網站“darksky.org”,
and to learn more about the choices you can make that can protect the dark night sky,
去學習更多關于你能做出的選擇,來保護夜空,
because it belongs to everyone, it belongs to all of us, and therefore, it's ours to experience as we wish.
因為它屬于每個人,屬于我們所有人,所以,我們根據自己的愿望去行動。
And it's also ours to lose. Thank you.
成敗的責任,都在于我們自己。謝謝!



點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 inevitable 5xcyq     
adj.不可避免的,必然發生的
參考例句:
  • Mary was wearing her inevitable large hat.瑪麗戴著她總是戴的那頂大帽子。
  • The defeat had inevitable consequences for British policy.戰敗對英國政策不可避免地產生了影響。
2 astronomers 569155f16962e086bd7de77deceefcbd     
n.天文學者,天文學家( astronomer的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • Astronomers can accurately foretell the date,time,and length of future eclipses. 天文學家能精確地預告未來日食月食的日期、時刻和時長。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Astronomers used to ask why only Saturn has rings. 天文學家們過去一直感到奇怪,為什么只有土星有光環。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
3 constellations ee34f7988ee4aa80f9502f825177c85d     
n.星座( constellation的名詞復數 );一群杰出人物;一系列(相關的想法、事物);一群(相關的人)
參考例句:
  • The map of the heavens showed all the northern constellations. 這份天體圖標明了北半部所有的星座。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • His time was coming, he would move in the constellations of power. 他時來運轉,要進入權力中心了。 來自教父部分
4 versus wi7wU     
prep.以…為對手,對;與…相比之下
參考例句:
  • The big match tonight is England versus Spain.今晚的大賽是英格蘭對西班牙。
  • The most exciting game was Harvard versus Yale.最富緊張刺激的球賽是哈佛隊對耶魯隊。
5 astronomically 44a6672c53e167d95b44195b013dda65     
天文學上
參考例句:
  • The bill was astronomically high. 賬單上的金額高得沒譜兒。
  • They have only been read as the multitude read the stars, at most astrologically, not astronomically. 它們之被群眾閱讀,有如群眾之閱覽繁星,至多是從星象學而不是從天文學的角度閱覽的。
6 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假裝的
參考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假裝對我們的課題感到興趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的態度不自然。
7 lighting CpszPL     
n.照明,光線的明暗,舞臺燈光
參考例句:
  • The gas lamp gradually lost ground to electric lighting.煤氣燈逐漸為電燈所代替。
  • The lighting in that restaurant is soft and romantic.那個餐館照明柔和而且浪漫。
8 inefficient c76xm     
adj.效率低的,無效的
參考例句:
  • The inefficient operation cost the firm a lot of money.低效率的運作使該公司損失了許多錢。
  • Their communication systems are inefficient in the extreme.他們的通訊系統效率非常差。
9 immediate aapxh     
adj.立即的;直接的,最接近的;緊靠的
參考例句:
  • His immediate neighbours felt it their duty to call.他的近鄰認為他們有責任去拜訪。
  • We declared ourselves for the immediate convocation of the meeting.我們主張立即召開這個會議。
10 scattered 7jgzKF     
adj.分散的,稀疏的;散步的;疏疏落落的
參考例句:
  • Gathering up his scattered papers,he pushed them into his case.他把散亂的文件收拾起來,塞進文件夾里。
11 outwards NJuxN     
adj.外面的,公開的,向外的;adv.向外;n.外形
參考例句:
  • Does this door open inwards or outwards?這門朝里開還是朝外開?
  • In lapping up a fur,they always put the inner side outwards.卷毛皮時,他們總是讓內層朝外。
12 upwards lj5wR     
adv.向上,在更高處...以上
參考例句:
  • The trend of prices is still upwards.物價的趨向是仍在上漲。
  • The smoke rose straight upwards.煙一直向上升。
13 scatters 803ecee4ca49a54ca72e41929dab799f     
v.(使)散開, (使)分散,驅散( scatter的第三人稱單數 );撒
參考例句:
  • He scatters money about as if he were rich. 他四處揮霍,好像很有錢。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Truth raises against itself the storm that scatters its seeds broadcast. 真理引起了反對它自己的狂風驟雨,那場風雨吹散了真理的廣播的種子。 來自辭典例句
14 blotting 82f88882eee24a4d34af56be69fee506     
吸墨水紙
參考例句:
  • Water will permeate blotting paper. 水能滲透吸水紙。
  • One dab with blotting-paper and the ink was dry. 用吸墨紙輕輕按了一下,墨水就乾了。
15 incapable w9ZxK     
adj.無能力的,不能做某事的
參考例句:
  • He would be incapable of committing such a cruel deed.他不會做出這么殘忍的事。
  • Computers are incapable of creative thought.計算機不會創造性地思維。
16 planetarium y20z0     
n.天文館;天象儀
參考例句:
  • The planetarium staff also prepared talks for radio broadcast.天文館的工作人員還要準備講稿給電臺廣播。
  • It landed in a shallow basin fifty yards from the planetarium.它降落在離天文館五十碼處的一個淺盆地中。
17 high-tech high-tech     
adj.高科技的
參考例句:
  • The economy is in the upswing which makes high-tech services in more demand too.經濟在蓬勃發展,這就使對高科技服務的需求量也在加大。
  • The quest of a cure for disease with high-tech has never ceased. 人們希望運用高科技治療疾病的追求從未停止過。
18 planetariums 1e4446492893939a49689e5a49722cb2     
n.天文館( planetarium的名詞復數 );天象儀
參考例句:
19 participation KS9zu     
n.參與,參加,分享
參考例句:
  • Some of the magic tricks called for audience participation.有些魔術要求有觀眾的參與。
  • The scheme aims to encourage increased participation in sporting activities.這個方案旨在鼓勵大眾更多地參與體育活動。
20 galaxy OhoxB     
n.星系;銀河系;一群(杰出或著名的人物)
參考例句:
  • The earth is one of the planets in the Galaxy.地球是銀河系中的星球之一。
  • The company has a galaxy of talent.該公司擁有一批優秀的人才。
21 galaxies fa8833b92b82bcb88ee3b3d7644caf77     
星系( galaxy的名詞復數 ); 銀河系; 一群(杰出或著名的人物)
參考例句:
  • Quasars are the highly energetic cores of distant galaxies. 類星體是遙遠星系的極為活躍的核心體。
  • We still don't know how many galaxies there are in the universe. 我們還不知道宇宙中有多少個星系。
22 annotate uVyzA     
v.注解
參考例句:
  • Some people annotate as they read.有的人一面讀書一面做注解。
  • People annotate the history,so does the history annotate people.人們在注釋歷史,歷史也在注釋人們。
23 delved 9e327d39a0b27bf040f1693e140f3a35     
v.深入探究,鉆研( delve的過去式和過去分詞 )
參考例句:
  • She delved in her handbag for a pen. 她在手提包里翻找鋼筆。
  • He delved into the family archives looking for the facts. 他深入查考這個家族的家譜以尋找事實根據。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
24 precisely zlWzUb     
adv.恰好,正好,精確地,細致地
參考例句:
  • It's precisely that sort of slick sales-talk that I mistrust.我不相信的正是那種油腔滑調的推銷宣傳。
  • The man adjusted very precisely.那個人調得很準。
25 annotating be2c59186a105ba5d6ee20e95706491b     
v.注解,注釋( annotate的現在分詞 )
參考例句:
  • Historians are checking and annotating the History of the Former Han Dynasty. 史學家們在校點《漢書》。 來自互聯網
  • This great flowering of annotating and indexing will alter the way we discover books, too. 注解和索引的大繁榮也會改變我們發現書籍的方式。 來自互聯網
26 amalgam 7xAzQ     
n.混合物;汞合金
參考例句:
  • To counter this myth,we explained that we're really an amalgam of little guys.為了打破這個神話,我們解釋說,我們確實是由一群小小的老百姓所組成的混合體。
  • American literature is to our eyes a curious amalgam of familiar and strange.我們認為,美國文學把我們所熟悉的和陌生的東西奇妙地結合起來了。
27 mediated b901b5da5d438661bcf0228b9947a320     
調停,調解,斡旋( mediate的過去式和過去分詞 ); 居間促成; 影響…的發生; 使…可能發生
參考例句:
  • He mediated in the quarrel between the two boys. 他調解兩個孩子之間的爭吵。
  • The government mediated between the workers and the employers. 政府在工人與雇主間搞調和。
28 valid eiCwm     
adj.有確實根據的;有效的;正當的,合法的
參考例句:
  • His claim to own the house is valid.他主張對此屋的所有權有效。
  • Do you have valid reasons for your absence?你的缺席有正當理由嗎?
29 savage ECxzR     
adj.野蠻的;兇惡的,殘暴的;n.未開化的人
參考例句:
  • The poor man received a savage beating from the thugs.那可憐的人遭到暴徒的痛打。
  • He has a savage temper.他脾氣粗暴。
TAG標簽: 英語演講
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